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Types of CAR-T therapies
There are several types of CAR-T therapy approved for the treatment of various leukaemia, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma on the market. Thus, with current currently CAR-T therapies we can treat:
- Acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia
- Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
- Follicular lymphoma
- Primary large B-cell mediastinal lymphoma
- High-grade B-cell lymphoma
- Mantle cell lymphoma
- Multiple myeloma
CAR-T ARI-0001 is a CAR-T cell therapy developed entirely by the Hospital Clínic Group. CAR-T ARI-0001 has been approved for the treatment of patients over 25 years of age with acute B-cell lymphoblastic leukaemia who do not respond to any of the conventional treatments available to date. Clinical studies have shown that CAR-T ARI-0001 produces complete responses in more than 70% of patients. In other words, after undergoing this type of immunotherapy, in more than 70% of patients there is no residual disease. Dr Álvaro Urbano-Ispizua, Director of the Instituto Clínic de Enfermedades Hemato-Oncológicas explains that "our CAR-T is safe and very effective, with results comparable to those described for other CAR-T therapies. With it can cover a need for the treatment of patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, specifically those adult patients who are resistant to the available treatments, for whom there was no other option".
Phases of CAR-T Therapy
CAR-T therapy consists of different phases, and the duration of treatment will depend on the type of CAR-T, the patient's response and the centre where it is performed.
T-cell harvesting is done using a technique called leukapheresis or white blood cell apheresis. During the hospital stay, on an outpatient basis, white blood cells will be collected from the patient's blood. The procedure takes between four and six hours. Then, once the T cells are separated from the rest of the blood material (which will be returned to the patient's body), they are sent to the laboratory to be genetically modified.
The process of genetic modification or reprogramming of CAR-T cells is carried out in a specialized laboratory. This phase of CAR-T therapy can last several weeks, during which time the patient is subjected to different follow-up tests and preparation for the infusion of CAR-T cells. During this time, the doctor may recommend additional chemotherapy and radiation therapy to prevent the disease from progressing.
Creation and multiplication of T cells
In the laboratory, it is not only the cells that have been obtained which are modified. Once genetically reprogrammed, the CAR-T cells will be multiplied and later frozen. Once in the centre, and after an exhaustive quality control process, the CAR-T cells will be ready for infusion.
Infusion of CAR-T cells
A few days before the infusion, the patient will be given a few doses of chemotherapy; to condition the body, prevent rejection and facilitate CAR-T cell function.
The CAR-T cell infusion is a procedure very similar to a blood transfusion, in which the patient is always conscious, and takes 15 to 30 minutes.
Once in the body, and if the treatment works as intended, the CAR-T cells will bind to tumour cells, destroy them, and begin to increase in number. Their growth and multiplication will allow them to fight against even more malignant cells.
CAR-T therapy monitoring
During the first weeks after CAR-T therapy, the patient should remain under observation. While CAR-T therapies can be very effective, there is the potential for serious adverse effects (40 to 70). For this reason, it is essential that CAR-T therapy is performed in an experienced centre specially prepared for its administration.
Recovery from CAR-T therapy can take several weeks and even months. During this time, you must be in contact with the centre and with the professionals of the Hematology Service.
Results of CAR-T therapy in the Hematology Service
OF PATIENTS RESPOND TO TREATMENT
OF PATIENTS TREATED WITH CAR-T ARI-0001 THERE IS NO RESIDUAL DISEASE
SURVIVAL PER YEAR
OF DISEASE-FREE PATIENTS PER YEAR
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LATEST NEWS ON HEMATOLOGY
The AEMPS approves the use of a CAR-T therapy developed by the Hospital Clínic Group for the treatment of a type of leukaemia
In recent years, cancer treatment has been revolutionised by immunotherapy, an approach that uses a patient’s own immune system to attack tumour cells. The Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS) has just approved ARI-0001, a CAR T-cell therapy (a type of immunotherapy) developed entirely by the Hospital Clínic Group, for use as a […]